Sinusitis types – Sinus infection symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Sinusitis is a common problem of hollow cavities at cheekbones, behind the nose and around eyes. Sinusitis is a nasal congestion, thick nasal discharge, facial pressure and cough. This is more frequent in winter months. Sinusitis is swelling of tissue lining, where the healthy sinuses are filled with mucus to warm, moisten and filter air that you breathe. But, the sinusitis is harmful when the nasals are blocked and filled with germs and fluid. The blocked mucus increases the infection. The physical findings of sinusitis are skin redness and swelling in the nasal passages, pus drainage from nasal passages, tenderness and face swelling.

Types of sinusitis

Acute sinusitis

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Acute sinusitis normally starts with cold symptoms. Some of the symptoms are stuffy nose, pain in the face, and runny nose. This can stand and lasts for about 2 – 4 weeks. Acute sinusitis is a common cold and is seen as a bacterial infection.

Subacute sinus

Subacute sinus stands for about 4 – 8 weeks. This is due to inflammation and of cold effect.

Chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis stands for about 8 weeks or maybe longer.

Recurrent sinusitis

Recurrent sinusitis could happen due to several times a year.

Symptoms of sinusitis

  • Congestion feeling like fullness in your face
  • Running nose or postnasal drainage
  • Finding a yellow-green nasal discharge
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Bad taste and congestion
  • Blocked nasal cavity
  • Toothache
  • Fever

Diagnosis for sinusitis

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Allergy testing can be performed by the allergist to get to know about chronic or reoccurring sinus infections. The chronic sinusitis can be examined by conducting nasal passage technique, which is called as rhinoscopy or nasal endoscopy. The thin and flexible instrument is used to conduct nasal endoscopy that is done by inserting up it into the nostril to view sinus passages. This can be identified by MRI or CT scan to check for abnormalities in the sinuses.

The chronic sinusitis has different methods to diagnose. Nasal endoscopy is one among them. The thin and flexible tube with a fiber optic light is taken and slowly inserted into the nose to see the inside of your sinuses. The process is called as rhiniscopy. The other method is imaging studies, which can be identified by CT and MRI scan at nasal area. This diagnosis treatment can pinpoint a deep inflammation that’s complicated when to detect sinusitis by using an endoscope. The alternative method is nasal and sinus cultures, which is used to diagnose the tissue cultures. This helps to identify the causes as bacteria or fungi. The final diagnosis for sinusitis is by conducting an allergy test. The doctors can suspect the condition that is triggered with the allergy. A skin test is performed that helps to pinpoint the allergy.

Treatments for sinusitis

Acute sinusitis treatment

Mostly, acute sinusitis doesn’t require any prescribed medications and treatments. This is caused due to bacterial infection, thus the treatment for acute sinusitis is with antibiotics. Antibiotics help to reduce the duration of acute sinusitis and can reduce the symptom severity. The treatments for acute sinusitis are as follows.

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  • Nasal spray helps to relieve from acute sinusitis symptoms and can reduce the drainage due to the nasal infection.
  • One should keep their body dehydrated by taking plenty of water and taking sufficient and enough rest.
  • You can even try vaporizing by breathing hot, moist air. This helps you feel relief or simply washing or cleaning the nasal cavities with a saline solution.
  • Acute sinusitis can be treated with a homemade saline solution. The homemade saline rinse is better and gives relief from sinusitis. Take canning salt that doesn’t contain iodide. This is rich in anti-caking agent or nothing but a preservative that helps to relieve from irritating the nasal lining. Take some baking soda and add them in 8 ounces of lukewarm distilled water. If you don’t find distilled water, then you can also use boiled water. Take 3 heaping teaspoons of iodide and add it with 1 teaspoon of baking soda. Mix them and store them in an airtight container. Take 1 teaspoon of that mixture into 8 ounces of lukewarm boiled water or distilled water. Using a nasal saline rinse, you can draw up saline into the bulb. You need to tilt the head downward and rotate to the left. Squeeze the mixture gently into the right nostril. Breathe normally with the mouth. In a few seconds, the solution comes out from left nostril. Rotate the head and repeat the same process on the other side. Be careful while doing this and it is better to do under the supervision of a doctor.
  • Some pain relievers like aspirin, ibuprofen is used to relieve from sinusitis. You should take care that children under 18 should not use aspirin medicine.

Chronic sinusitis treatment

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Chronic sinusitis is due to bacterial infection, thus antibiotics don’t work for this. Nasal sprays such as corticosteroid, is used to treat sinusitis, but should be used under doctor supervision only. If the doctor found any fungus in their diagnosis, then they may suggest anti-fungal medication. Treat the allergies with medicines to prevent recurrences of sinusitis. The major problem is with environmental control like avoiding allergens, which is very important for people with rhinitis by indoor allergens like dust mites, molds. This prevents the need of surgery and recurrent occurring of sinusitis. The endoscopic sinus surgery can be chosen to treat when the medications fail.

  • Saline nasal irrigation treatment to reduce drainage. This can rinse the allergies as well as irritants.
  • Nasal corticosteroids prevent and helps in treating inflammation. If the nasal spray doesn’t work or not effective, then doctor may recommend rinsing with the saline solution and may be followed by a saline added with some drops of budesonide.
  • Oral treatments are by medications to relieve from inflammation that is especially with nasal polyps. The oral corticosteroids results in severe side effects when used in long term treatment.
  • The aspirin desensitization treatment for sinusitis. You should check that the aspirin can cause a reaction by causing sinusitis. One should avoid it taking, if it results in any reactions. Thus, you should take under the supervision of doctor and are suggested for larger doses to increase tolerance.
  • Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infection, but should be done if recommended. This is because the doctor may replace antibiotics with other medications based upon the symptoms of sinusitis or cold.