Smoking ups risk of developing a second cancer

Cigarette smoking is a well established risk factor for primary cancer. Smoking is known to significantly increase a person’s risk of developing lung and kidney cancer. New study shown that people who smoked prior to their first cancer diagnosis are also much more likely to go on to develop a second smoking associated cancer.

A large study has found that cigarette smoking prior to the first diagnosis of lung (stage I), bladder, kidney or head and neck cancer increase the risk of developing a second smoking-associated cancer.

US researchers examined data from five major studies involving over 15,000 people with lung, head and neck, bladder and kidney cancer. They focused on the development of second primary cancers.

The first time a person is diagnosed with cancer, it is referred to as a first primary cancer. A second primary cancer is a second cancer that has been diagnosed that is not considered metastases, but is in face a distinct, new cancer.

The researchers found that people who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day prior to their first diagnosis of cancer had a five-fold increased risk of going on to develop a second smoking associated cancer, compared to people who had survived the same cancers but had never smoked.

“As survival improves for a number of smoking-related cancers, patients are living longer; however, smoking may increase the risk of developing a second smoking-related cancer among these survivors,” said Meredith S. Shiels, lead study author and research fellow with the National Cancer Institute’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.

Notably, current smoking at any level increased the risk of overall mortality across all cancer disease sites.

“Our study demonstrates that health care providers should emphasize the importance of smoking cessation to all their patients, including cancer survivors,” Shiels concluded.

Almost 900 second primary smoking associated cancers were diagnosed among the participants. Across the four different cancers assessed those who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day before their first cancer diagnosis were more likely to develop a second smoking associated cancer.

Researchers examined data from five cohorts which included 2,552 patients with stage I lung, 6,386 with bladder, 3,179 with kidney and 2,967 with head and neck cancer.

The risks were as follows to cancer.

  • With head and neck cancer, they were 4.5 times more likely
  • With stage one lung cancer, smokers were 3.3 times more likely to develop a second smoking-associated cancer.
  • With bladder cancer, they were 3.7 times more likely.
  • With kidney cancer, they were 5.3 times more likely.

The study also found that people, who smoked fewer than 20 cigarettes per day, and former smokers, also had an increased risk of developing a second smoking associated cancer compared to never smokers; however the risks fell in line with the number of years since they had quit the habit.

How to control high blood pressure – Home made remedies

The force of blood against the walls of arteries is blood pressure. High Blood Pressure (HBP) causes due to overstretching of the arterial walls and tiny tears in the blood vessels. HPB, also known as hypertension induce kidney failure, heart attacks and even dementia.

“Small changes can yield big benefits. Be control and lower high blood pressure naturally”

Here are some lifestyle changes that lower your blood pressure

Exercise regularly

It’s a better idea to get advice from your doctor before going to start exercise regularly. 30 minutes walk or exercise a day can keep your heart healthy and lower your blood pressure. Check with your doctor is you are over are 40 (men) or 50 (women). Increasing your exercise level can lower your blood pressure within just a few weeks.

Lose extra pounds

Extra weight increases your blood pressure leads to heart attack. The more weight you lose, the lower your blood pressure will be. The best way to achieve your target weight from your doctor lowers your blood pressure. Losing weight will help you to reduce your health problems.

Choosing low fat, low calorie foods and physical activities are the best ways to lose your weight. Your doctor or nurses will be able to advice about your weight by a calculation called Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI tells you what weight you should be for your height. Number of BMI calculators is available on the Internet.

You can calculate your own body mass index, for this you need to know your height in meters and your weight in kilograms.

  • Divide your weight by your height
  • Divide the obtained number by your height

BMI Table for Adults: BMI values for adults age 18 or older.

Category BMI range – kg/m2
Severe Thinness < 16
Moderate Thinness 16 – 17
Mild Thinness 17 – 18.5
Normal 18.5 – 25
Overweight 25 – 30
Obese Class I 30 – 35
Obese Class II 35 – 40
Obese Class III > 40

BMI Table for Children and Teens: BMI categorization for children, teens between ages 2 and 20.

Category Percentile Range
Underweight <5%
Healthy weight 5% – 85%
At risk of overweight 85% – 95%
Overweight >95%

Limit the amount of alcohol you drink

The less you drink, the lower your blood pressure will drop. Consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Drinking alcohol can raise your blood pressure, so avoid too much alcohol. If you don’t drink alcohol, you shouldn’t start drinking because it may cause more potential harm than benefit.

  • Men should have not more than 2 drinks per day where as women only 1. The effect will be different for each person.
  • Alcohol in small amounts can potentially lower your blood pressure by 2 to 4mm Hg.

Healthy diet

Eating more vegetable, fruits, pulses will help to lower your blood pressure. Fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins, minerals, potassium and fiber to keep your body healthy.

Adults should eat at least 5 different portions of fruits and vegetables per day. Change your eating habits; you can adopt a healthy diet.

  • Dairy Products: Add low fatty dairy products into your diet
  • Potassium: Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. Take food that is low in salt and high in potassium
  • Fiber: Add leafy greens, fruits, whole grain products, nuts and legumes into your diet which are high fiber

Reduce sodium in your diet

People with high blood pressure cut back on salt prevent blood pressure from rising. Choose foods low in salt and sodium. 2.4 grams of sodium a day equals 6 grams i.e., about one teaspoon of table salt a day. To add more flavor to your foods use herbs or spices, garlic and onions rather than salt.

Stop smoking

Cigarette smoking like nicotine can affect not only blood pressure but also lung cancer. The nicotine in tobacco products can raise your blood pressure by 10 mm Hg or more up to an hour after you smoke.

Inhaling smoke from others, secondhand smoking puts you at risk of health problems like high blood pressure and heart disease.

Cutback on caffeine

Avoid caffeine, much chocolate, sugar, candy, drinks and excessive dietary fats. Drinking caffeinated beverages can affect temporary or long lasting.

  • Two cups of coffee can raise blood pressure
  • 4 caffeinated drinks per day prevent withdrawal symptoms such as headaches

Check your pressure within 30 minutes of drinking a cup of coffee or any other caffeinated beverage increases by five to 10 points; you may be sensitive to blood pressure raise with the effect of caffeine.

Reduce your stress

Stress can make blood pressure go up, and over time may contribute to the cause of high blood pressure. Temporary rise in blood pressure, overweight or family history of hypertension tend to stress. Stress rises because of your adrenal gland releases stress hormones which tend to cause your cardiovascular system to overwork.

Stress hormone increases your pulse, respiration and heart rate that you are in need of fighting or running. So try some relaxation techniques:

  1. Long walk to take the edge off a stressful day long before go to bed
  2. Set the time around 30 minutes before bed to finish the day must do tasks, personal hygiene things and try deep breathing or meditation

Monitor your blood pressure at home

Monitor you blood pressure by using a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope. Note down the different ranges in reading your blood pressure.

  • Normal blood pressure – 120/80 and below
  • Pre-Hypertension blood pressure – 120-139/80-89
  • First stage hypertension – 140-159/90-99
  • Second stage hypertension – 160/100 and above

If your doctor asks you to take your blood pressure at home, keep in mind:

  • Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist to see which monitor you need and to show you how to use it
  • Avoid smoking, exercise, and caffeine 30 minutes before checking your blood pressure
  • Make sure you are sitting with your feet on the floor and your back is against something
  • Relax quietly for 5 minutes before checking your blood pressure
  • Keep a list of your blood pressure numbers to share with your doctor, physicians or nurse
  • Take your home monitor to the doctor’s office to make sure your monitor is working right

Get support from family and friends

It’s not always easy to lose weight, and you can quickly get bored or give up without encouragement. You need support from your family and friends. This puts you in touch with people who can give you an emotional or morale boost and offer practical tips to cope with your condition.